All Legal Tools and Resources

Legal Tools and Resources

About Legal Tools and Resources

Legal experts have offered opinions on the validity and obligation of trade measures to #StopSettlements. While some countries have already introduced legislation to prohibit trade with illegal settlement enterprises, others are still working on legislation.

The #StopSettlements network supports governments and organizations in their understanding of the obligation to stop trade with settlements and helps them prepare supporting materials, including official bills.

Below, we present legal tools and resources that provide a framework for the viability and implementation of these laws under local, European Union and international trade, economic and human rights law. We also present materials that are specific to the illegal Israeli settlements in Occupied Palestine.

General Stop Settlement Legislation

Draft Finnish Legislation on Settlement Products

The full text of ‘Act on the Prohibition to Import Goods Originating from Certain Occupied Territories’, introduced by Finnish Member of Parliament Veronika Honkasalo.

Draft Irish Bill on Settlement Goods

The full text of ‘The Control of Economic Activity (Occupied Territories) Bill 2018’, introduced by Irish independent Senator Frances Black.

Draft Model Legislation for European Countries

Draft legislation ‘Control of economic activity from settlements in occupied territories’ developed by Dr. Tom Moerenhout

General Stop Settlement Legal Analyses

Academic article by Tom Moerenhout

This peer-reviewed academic article in the Journal of International Humanitarian Legal Studies (2012) confirms the international legal obligation of states to not trade with illegal settlements and explains the permissibility under WTO l...

Legal Analysis – Gerry Liston

This legal analysis of the ‘Control of Economic Activity (Occupied Territories) Bill 2018’ by Gerry Liston explains in detail the relevant EU law that allows individual Member States to stop settlement trade to make sure Ireland respect ...

Legal analysis by Tom Moerenhout and John Reynolds

This legal opinion reviews Ireland’s obligations with regards to trade with illegal settlements and its ‘Control of Economic Activity (Occupied Territories) Bill 2018’ and confirms the permissibility for Ireland to stop such trade under ...

Core EU And International Law Documents

European Commission on its competence to stop trade with settlements

After the European Commission first rejected the European Citizens Initiative to Stop Settlements, a successful lawsuit by the organizers (see Moerenhout et al. v European Commission) led to the Commission recognizing its competence to e...

The ILC Articles on State responsibility (2001)

The International Law Commission 2001 Articles on State Responsibility that codify customary international law and recognize that all states have the obligations of non-recognition and non-assistance when another state violates the highe...

The Fourth Geneva Convention (1949)

Core international humanitarian law (1949) that confirms the fundamental prohibition of the transfer of the civilian population of the occupying force to the occupied territory as well as the prohibition of pillaging the occupied territory.

The Marrakesh Agreement Establishing the World Trade Organization (1994)

The Agreement establishing the WTO (1994) that confirms the objectives of free trade as raising standards of living, ensuring full employment and a large and steadily growing volume of real income and effective demand, and expanding the ...